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yubikey change slot Mine of Information - Yubikey Concepts, Configuration and Use The Mine of Information Nuggets of Programming and Linux Yubikey Concepts, Configuration and Use First published on: August 24, 2018 Categories: Introduction is a company which produces a number of hardware authenticator devices, ie small physical tokens that can be used to authenticate log in to IT systems.
I recently purchased aand found the technical documentation very lacking; there is lots of info on the website, but most of it is pure marketing-level.
Even the are either marketing-oriented or extremely detailed.
Therefore this article contains results of some research I did myself on the topic.
The Yubico devices have versions from 1 to 4 currently.
Frankly, the set of available features, options, and the supporting applications are a mess.
There is good functionality buried in there, but it takes some effort to find.
Similarly, the management apps for them have lots of options that only apply to specific versions of keys and are rather confusing to use.
I hope this article helps you decide whether to buy a Yubikey4, and how to use it.
UPDATE: The since late September 2018.
Summary To save you a lot of reading, here are my conclusions up front.
In my opinion, the coolest feature of the Yubikey4 is its OpenPGP support.
Probably the most practical feature, however, is its support for up to 28 OATH TOTP credentials.
TOTP is not the best authentication protocol, but is widely supported eg as Google login, and by many online banking sites.
The FIDO2 and associated WebAuthentication protocols are pretty new at this point in time mid 2018.
This appears to be an excellent solution, but currently only a few tools and websites support them.
The cheaper Yubico Security Key does support this, but does not support OATH or OpenPGP.
The device has also proven pretty robust so far.
At a company level, passwords are not only a nuisance for users whether employees, customers or partnersbut also open up a number of potentially costly and inconvenient security holes.
this web page authenticators instead of passwords can save a company a lot of trouble.
Because these secrets must be stored on the target site and cannot be hashed like passwordsthey can potentially be stolen.
However these credentials are only random values and are not reused between sites like passwords m2 xperia slot chip de are.
A server can potentially store its copy of the secrets in an HSM Hardware Security Module in which case the credentials are also almost unstealable server-side too.
Note that OATH is not related to the very similarly named OAUTH protocol.
OAUTH is not directly relevant for authentication tokens.
Yubico provide a number of desktop applications for configuring their devices.
All Yubikeys have a button which can be pressed to confirm operations; some authentication operations require a button-press while others do not, and for some protocols each credential can be configured to require button or not.
Obviously, link a button-press is more secure volcano slot vip also more annoying.
The NFC-enabled Yubikey Neo can be used with phones that do not have a USB port - but has limited processing capability and therefore does not support all protocols and can store less data.
Yubico may release Bluetooth-enabled devices in the future, or maybe not - they are not convinced Bluetooth is sufficiently secure.
Presumably Bluetooth-based devices would require an internal battery.
Interestingly, Google announced in July 2018 that it has.
The online docs are vague, but as far as I can tell, they sadly only support FIDO1 aka U2F - no OATH, FIDO2 or OpenPGP.
Knowing the underlying details often helps when something goes wrong.
The following sections discuss the client-authenticator interaction for various protocols.
USB HID One of the available USB device classes is - meant to represent Human Interaction Devices such as click here, mice, and game controllers.
A CCID cannot act as a keyboard or similar.
These are becoming rarer now; if support company slot nigeria phone in smart-cards is needed then this is usually done via an external smart-card reader device which attaches to the host via USB.
The Yubikey registers itself as such a USB-based smartcard-reader and immediately indicates that it has a smart-card inserted into it.
This is an extremely low-level specification; hardrockcasinosiouxcity basically just covers how a generic request can be sent to the card, and how a generic response comes back, at the byte level.
Sadly, ISO standards are not published free-of-charge.
In any case, the point is that custom software on the client sends a request to the attached Yubikey and gets back a response.
Yubico does provide documentation for the server-to-yubico-authentication-server calls, but that is nothing to do with interaction with the Yubikey device itself.
CTAP stands for Client to Authenticator Protocol where a Yubikey is an example of an Authenticator.
The FIDO1 protocol includes the CTAP1 specification, and the FIDO2 protocol includes the CTAP2 specification.
You can read about and if you wish.
Communication is mostly exclusively?
The card defines its own higher-level protocol request and response messages for registering keys, performing authentication, etc.
The open-source GnuPG suite of applications includes an implementation of this protocol; the Yubikey4 also supports this protocol and is thus compatible with GnuPG applications.
The PKCS series of specifications define various protocols and data formats related to encryption and digital signatures.
These specifications are not official standards they are produced by the company RSA Securitybut are respected and widely supported.
The library implements the PKCS 11 API for the above continue reading ie maps PKCS 11 api calls into CCID messages that transfer OpenPGP-smart-card data packets.
A number of applications support the PKCS 11 API, including the Thunderbird email client for signing and encrypting emails and gpg-agent for logging in to an SSH server.
These applications can therefore interact with either an Read article smart-card or a Yubikey.
See later in this article for more details on OpenPGP and SSH with Yubikey.
One-touch Authentication Yubikey Slots As noted earlier, a software application normally runs on the client machine phone or desktop which interacts with the Yubikey device.
When the button is pressed then the Yubikey acts like a USB keyboard and generates some text output that will end up in whatever text input fields are active at the time whether commandline or Eventually payday 2 weapon slots infamy simply />This allows a Yubikey to be used to output credentials without needing any client-side software at all.
Yubikey devices with NFC support can be configured to use one of the two slots when activated via NFC in particular, to send text output to a mobile phone when tapped against it.
This functionality is therefore not very useful for authentication on the internet in general.
However it may be useful for article source purposes, eg a Yubikey see more dedicated to authentication in a work environment, or one dedicated to a specific bank account.
Slot1 is factory-preset with Yubico-OTP credentials.
A company can also run its own Yubico-OTP servers if desired though FIDO2 is probably a better option now.
This does, however, require software on the client device which in the case of WebAuthentication is part of the browser itself.
Despite my personal opinion on the ugliness of the one-touch approach, the Yubico website documentation relies heavily on this.
As an admin and architect with interest in security my opinion is that this is madness; I would never set up login on my servers like this.
The Yubikey hardware itself is good, and can be set up to provide secure access - but the configuration advice on the website is not optimal for security presumably presented like that so it looks simple for marketing purposes.
Using the preset credentials might be an option when providing a lightweight service to customers over the internet ie not login to a server commandline or similar.
When this is set to true, then any attempt to use that credential for authentication will require the user to physically confirm by pressing the button on the Yubikey device the device will not return its response to an authentication request until the press occurs.
After attaching to a USB port, the device is in locked mode.
This functionality requires software on the client system in order to send the unlock code to the authenticator device.
Of course, because the PIN is entered via software on the client, it is vulnerable to interception if the host system contains malware.
However it does protect against physical theft of the key the thief cannot use the device without knowing the pin.
Before using named OATH credentials, client software must send a CCID SELECT command to the Yubikey device, specifying the OATH protocol application.
When the device is locked, a challenge value challenge1 is returned.
The client software can therefore be certain that the Yubikey or whatever is on the USB bus really knows the shared secret.
This statefulness is probably part of the somewhat old CCID standard; in practice it is unlikely to be a problem.
Unlocking the PIV Protocol With PIV authentication, there are effectively three codes: PIN, PUK and Management Key.
Unlocking PIV functionality is done with the PIN each time the key is inserted into a USB port.
Both PIN and PUK are 6-8 characters digits recommended.
When using PIV mode, you should set a PUK value and save it somewhere safe.
All of these codes can be set with the Yubico PIV Manager application pivman.
If you choose to use an explicit management key, then make sure you save that somewhere, as it will be needed when making any future changes as well as the PIN.
See for more info.
With PIV authentication, there are effectively three codes: PIN, PUK and Management Key.
Both PIN and PUK are 6 or 8 characters digits recommended ; the management key is a 24-byte 3DES key.
See for more info.
Presumably the necessary data-formats are defined in the standards somewhere.
Authentication Protocols This section provides more detail on the different kinds of authentication that the Yubikey supports.
Static Passwords A Yubikey can storethough this is not a good use of a Yubikey.
The passwords can be set via the Yubico Manager commandline application or the Yubico Personalization GUI application.
With a short or long button press on the Yubikey, the password is then emitted by the Yubikey as if typed on a keyboard.
Due to inconsistencies in the ways various operating systems and computers react to USB keyboards, there are some problems with a Yubikey replaying stored passwords as text.
This unfortunately can result in incorrect password playback when used on a different system eg one set up with a different default keyboard layout.
Unfortunately modhex passwords are not compatible with sites which mandate non-alphabetic chars in a password.
There are various workarounds, though the details were not entirely clear from the Yubico documentation.
A better way to manage login via static password IMO is to use one of the available password manager applications for desktop or mobile phone, and then to think, pci card on pcie slot pity login to this application with the Yubikey.
There are instructions on the Yubikey site for integrating with various applications - and the authentication will use one of the properly secure protocols.
When the value received by the server matches what it has computed on its own, then the client actually the Yubikey must know the secret, and is therefore valid.
The challenge-response protocol uses the standard HMAC algorithm to compute fn challenge, secret.
The HOTP and Yubico-OTP protocols are similar to challenge-response, except that the Yubikey generates the challenge itself rather than accepting one from the system it is authenticating to; the challenge is simply an incrementing integer ie a counter stored on the Yubikey and thus no client software is needed.
TOTP also works similarly; the Yubico authenticator app provides the challenge value to the Yubikey - the current timestamp from the host system.
See the sections on these specific protocols for more details.
OATH TOTP Time-based One Time Https:// is a design-pattern for authenticating using an underlying secret that is never passed over the network.
The has published a specification for TOTP, which A Yubikey can be configured with up to 28 named credentials secrets for TOTP.
A command can then be sent to the Yubikey with a timestamp value, and the device returns a 6-digit pin number which is effectively HMAC secret, timestamp.
This 6-digit pin can be submitted to some other system which also has access to the same secret and thus can verify the response.
Usually, the timestamp used is the current time rounded to the nearest 30 seconds.
This is available for all major desktops Linux, Windows, Mac and for Android.
The Yubico manager application is needed to configure the Yubikey with credentials.
Optionally, a credential can be configured to require a keypress on the Yubikey before returning a code.
The TOTP protocol is very popular; lots of secure systems support TOTP codes eg yubikey change slot requiring the user to type in the code in a field of an html login form.
In fact, some banks have offered dedicated hardare tokens for TOTP for many years; they are credit-card-like or USB-stick-like devices with a small LED screen that shows a code that changes every 30 seconds; the Yubikey TOTP support is just a more flexible version of these tokens but does require client software capable of communicating with the Yubikey device to be installed.
The 6-digit or 8-digit pins returned from the Yubikey eg via the Yubico Authenticator app for desktop, or the Yubico Authenticator app for Android are 100% compatible with pins returned from the application.
Google Authenticator is an Android app which also generates TOTP codes, but does not require a physical key - it just stores the secret and does the computation directly on the phone.
TOTP can also be used for logging into operating systems.
Ths requires client and server clocks to be approximately in sync.
It presents this value as a QCode on the screen; if running an OATH client app on a mobile phone then you can start that app and scan the code to import the code.
OATH HOTP HMAC-based One Time Password is a design-pattern for authenticating using an underlying secret that is never passed over the network.
The has published a specification for HOTP, which.
This 6-digit pin can be submitted to some other system whch also has access to the same secret and an approximately synchronized counter.
The Yubikey internally maintains a counter which it increments each time it generates a pin password.
Both client and server need the shared secret and counter.
When a login attempt from a client does not match the expected counter, the server can try expected+1 up to expected+n in case it missed some client login attempts, but N should be low.
This makes it possible to fill out password fields in web forms or applications without needing any custom software on the client machine at all though configuring the Yubikey does require using the Yubico manager software at some time.
This no-software approach might be particularly useful when using public PCs eg at a library.
Note however that using public PCs still makes the user vulnerable to many attacks.
Interacting with named HOTP credentials requires using the Yubico Authenticator application.
During account setup, websites often auto-generate the shared secret and present it to the user as a QR code image a graphical 2-dimensional barcode.
When the user is running an OATH client app on a mobile phone, the client app scans the internal graphics buffer to find the QR code and extracts the shared secret from it even though the content is in a window belonging to another app - eg a web browser.
However other operating systems forbid apps from accessing content in other windows; in particular Wayland on Linux prevents such arbitrary access for security reasons.
Yubico-OTP is a Yubico-specific authentication scheme a.
This allows a server to use just the response alone to perform authentication, rather than require a userid, response pair.
The generated id can be used instead of a password, or in addition to one.
Supported systems include Windows login,and FreeRADIUS.
Depending on an external server for authentication has obvious reliability and privacy implications; if these are not acceptable then you can run your own Yubico-OTP server and overwrite slot1 with new public-id, private-id, secret values.
The U2F standard aka FIDO1 defines a USB protocol for communicating with Authenticators security devices such as Yubikey which register as USB HID devices; the specification is.
This protocol is also known as CTAP1 Client To Authenticator Protocol 1.
U2F never really got popular.
There was one major authenticator-side supporter Yubicoand one major server-side supporter Google - no surprise, as Yubico and Google invented U2F together.
It is also possible to use U2F for login other than to websites.
Yubico provides a which are sky vegas slots gratis words local logins to a Linux server by using the CTAP1 protocol to communicate with an attached Authenticator.
If you have a Yubikey4, then in my opinion using the PIV smartcard functions would be a better more standard choice.
The is actually quite well written, and I recommend reading it.
The is also good.
However for completeness of this article, this section describes FIDO2 in my own words.
FIDO2 authentication support for PAM, RADIUS, etc.
The FIDO2 specification also requires support for the W3C-defined WebAuthn low-level API for javascript to interact with an authenticator device; web-browsers are expected to provide an implementation of this API which maps function calls to CTAP2 messages.
At the current date, the most widely-used web-browsers have implemented WebAuthn support.
The way the protocol works is that the site provides its id usually its base url.
The Yubikey uses the site-id to select the matching private-key then generates a digital signature of challenge, origin, other-stuff.
That signature is then forwarded by the browser to the server, which validates the signature using the public key of the user.
The challenge ensures that replay attacks cannot be used, and the origin plus other info protects against man-in-the-middle attacks.
However internally, Windows Hello effectively integrates the FIDO2 authentication flow into the standard windows login process, allowing any FIDO2-compliant system to be used to authenticate a user kind of like a limited for MS-Windows.
The result is that the Yubikey can be used to log in to Windows; when the Yubikey has a PIN set for FIDO2, then login requires both device and pin 2 factors and when no pin is set then login just requires the device only.
A browser can support WebAuthentication without an external authenticator; the FIDO2 authentication mechanisms are still better than using passwords even when the credentials private keys are stored on local disk by the browser.
When the operating-system provides a central FIDO2 authenticator in software, that is better eg Windows 10 provides this.
And a dedicated Authenticator device is even more secure.
It is not yet clear whether Apple will support FIDO2 in their browser Safari and their web services.
PIV Personal Identity Verification Smartcard Authentication Protocol A NIST standard defines a protocol for client software to talk to smartcard devices for the purpose of authentication.
This protocol is used reasonably widely within the US Government.
A moderate amount of additional software also supports PIV, including.
OpenPGP is an official standard, derived with permission from the proprietary PGP suite of applications.
The GNU Privacy Guard project aka GnuPG or GPG provides an open-source implementation of the OpenPGP standard.
The Yubikey4 supports this protocol and can therefore be used together with GnuPG or any other compatible client software to do key setup, encryption and signature-creation.
Yubico does not provide its own software for OpenPGP; you just use GnuPG or any compatible alternative.
Any software designed to work with such a smart card therefore works with a Yubikey.
The library is one such tool.
And fortunately, a number of applications support PKCS 11 including the Thunderbird email client for signing and encrypting emails and gpg-agent for logging in to an SSH server.
In practice, some or all of these keys will be subkeys of other keys.
The public parts of the keys loaded into the Yubikey should placed somewhere internet-accessible, eg on your own webserver or uploaded to a public keyserver.
The easiest solution is to use the GPG command gpg --send-keys.
Configuring OpenPGP Keys The simplest approach to configuring a Yubikey for OpenPGP is to get the Yubikey to create OpenPGP keys within the device.
These keys can be for signing, encrypting, and authenticating - but because the private keys can never be extracted from the Yubikey, if the Yubikey is lost or damaged then you lose access to all encrypted data, must publish a new signature, and must reconfigure all servers you authenticate against with the new public key.
A slightly more complex approach to setting up OpenPGP keys is to use a desktop system to create a single key with certify and encrypt abilities, and subkeys with sign and authenticate abilities.
Back this key up somewhere secure eg a USB stick in a bank safe.
Then load the three keys master, and two subkeys into the appropriate slots in the Yubikey.
If the Yubikey is lost or damaged, you can reload everything from the backup into a new Yubikey device.
You can also potentially load continue reading same keys into multiple Yubikey devices, eg as backups or for team use.
The most secure approach is to create a master key with just the certify usage enabled, create a subkey for each purpose you need sign, encrypt, authenticateand load just the subkeys and not the master key into the Yubikey device.
The master can then be kept safely backed up and offline, just in case new subkeys need to be created.
The master key is really your identity; even though Yubikeys are designed to make it extremely difficult to extract keys from it, having the master safely offline is even better.
As with the previous approach, the same subkeys or different subkeys of the same master key can be loaded into multiple Yubikey devices if desired.
When the entire master key is not in the Yubikey, then at least the public key part must be loaded into the Yubikey in order to provide a full chain of authentication for the subkeys.
The first two approaches are documented.
The offline-master approach is.
The documentation also has some examples of how to set up PGP keys in a hardware token.
It is recommended that the master key be created on a PC, and kept on a USB stick or similar which is stored somewhere very safe.
It is also recommended that subkeys be created on a PC and stored in safe offline storage like the master possibly on the same deviceand then the subkeys be loaded into the Yubikey.
Potentially the same subkey can be loaded into multiple Yubikey devices.
Here is a brief summary of the most complex process as recommended by esev; it takes a while maybe an hour the first timebut only needs to be done once for a Yubikey.
Temporarily disable standard keyring mv.
Why is the encryption subkey created on the PC and backed-up, but the signing and authentication subkeys are created on the Yubikey where they cannot be backed up?
Simply because a new signing key can be created one s sim slot needed; recipients will accept a signature as valid when signed with any valid subkey.
Similarly, a new authentication key can be created when needed.
Getting the Yubikey to create these subkeys itself is the cleanest solution; the keys then never exist outside of the Yubikey protected memory.
However encrypted data can only be decrypted with exactly the correct subkey, so it should be created on a PC so that it can be backed up despite the very slightly higher security risk.
Ideally the system on which the keys are created is transient eg a PC booted from a live CD for securityso that no trace of the created keys exist outside of the Yubikey and the backup.
You will need the Yubikey openpgp PIN code and the admin PIN code; the defaults are 123456 and 12345678.
The pin can be changed with gpg --change-pin and the whole OpenPGP module on the Yubikey can be reset with ykman openpgp reset.
The details of using OpenPGP for SSH login are described later.
These do not use an external hardware key like a Yubikey ; they are better than using a plain password for authentication but not as secure as a Yubikey.
Probably the best-known software authenticator application is.
Security then relies on secure login to that site, ie relies on the fact that only your phone can log in to retrieve credentials.
However this is not usually true; such systems provide multiple ways to get access to your stored secrets.
Possibly the best can 243 ways slots opinion both worlds is to use a password-service such as one of the above, but authenticate to it using a Yubikey.
As noted earlier, the HOTP and TOTP protocols require both the client and server sides to share a common secret key.
The use of QR codes to do this is discussed earlier in this article.
Other sites may use some of the same approaches.
Much of this content repeats info already presented earlier - but in the specific context of login to Google.
There are other ways to intercept SMS messages too - they are an old technology that was not designed with high security in yubikey change slot />The Google Authenticator app stores the shared secret used to generate codes locally on the phone, which is not ideal.
The Yubico Authenticator app works identically to Google Authenticator, but the secret is stored in a Yubikey device which is much safer.
Various applications for desktop computers also exist for generating TOTP codes from locally-stored secrets.
The application then prompts the user to confirm login to the server, and sends some kind of confirmation to the originator of the push message.
Various companies provide similar apps for login to their sites eg Microsoft, Blizzard.
I cannot find any details on the protocol used to communicate between server and Google Prompt app, ie agp slot motherboard is not clear how the server side ensures that it is talking to the correct phone.
These can be printed out and stored somewhere safe - an excellent emergency fallback.
This is of course google-specific, ie these codes cannot be used on other sites.
Creating backup codes for every site you have an account with is not so convenient.
U2F Google login via U2F ie FIDO1 authentication is fairly easy to set up, and very easy to use - provided you have compatible software.
When registering your U2F token eg Yubikey4 against your account, it is necessary to use a Chrome browser; no other browser correctly supports the U2F registration flow as far as I know.
Google Chrome is obviously a U2F-enabled browser.
A separate key Yubikey etc is therefore a good idea.
However plugging a key into a USB port does not work for mobile phones no ports.
It is thus much more difficult to corrupt the software.
Of course, it is also smaller!
And has no battery, so is always available.
SSH Authentication Via OpenPGP The best way to set up SSH login appears to be to create an OpenPGP key, load the secret part into the Yubikey, deploy the public part to the target machine, and then ensure that SSH can start gpg-agent when needed.
The process of creating an OpenPGP key and loading it into the Yubikey is documented under PGP above.
The ssh-agent tool is one such program, but it does not handle GPG keyrings; instead gpg-agent is needed.
A gpg-agent process is never shared between users, ie the background process is per-user.
In fact, all the gpg.
The gpg-agent may need to prompt for a PIN at some stages, and therefore needs to be configured with a suitable slot 1 reader again, my Ubuntu system is appropriately set up to show a simple but effective graphical dialog for pin entry.
Terminate the gpg agent occasionally useful gpgconf --kill gpg-agent The following script-commands will set up SSH to talk to gpg-agent.
The call to gpgconf also starts gpg-agent if not already running.
With Yubico-OTP An alternative is to install a PAM module on each target system, configure a list of allows Yubico token ids per user, and then integrate PAM with a Yubico authentication server that has the shared secret in the Yubico keys of all users who may log in.
As alternative, a sysadmin can configure each Yubikey user with a credential and enter that into a company-hosted Yubico authentication server.
This is two-factor authentication in that the user must enter their usual password and provide the Yubikey credentials too.
Personally, I find the OpenPGP-based approach far more elegant and secure.
The MacOS login itself recognises click at this page a PIV-compatible device is present and the selected user has a registered PIV public key credential ie a PIV device with this account in the past.
Only one private key is supported.
Sadly, this integration is not a major advantage in useability - you still need to enter a pin instead of a password.
It can be a useability benefit in companies where IT forces password changes on a regular basis; there is no need to force changes in the key or pin!
With the standard Mac PIC integration, if the key is not in the laptop then you can still log in with password.
Users who choose poor passwords, or reuse passwords, are therefore still a danger.
Given that users do not enter their password directly, it would be possible to require long and complicated passwords.
Using PAM It is supposedly possible to install a Yubico-provided authentication module onto the MacOS system, and configure it to use this module during authentication.
This makes it possible yubikey change slot prevent any login without the Yubikey being present.
A separate key is therefore a good idea.
However plugging a key into a USB port does not work for mobile phones no ports.
Backing Up Credentials What if your Yubikey gets lost or damaged?
Well, that is a big problem.
If you use the QR-code entry method, then the secret is written to the Authenticator logfile, from which they can be extracted and saved safely.
That approach would seem to nicely protect user security while also allowing at least periodic backups; unfortunately I have seen no indication such functionality exists or is planned.
The suggestions in this page do not work well for users of U2F or FIDO2.
Yubico Applications For Android The Yubico Authenticator for Android is apparently a fork of the Google Authenticator code which is open-sourcewith additional support for communicating with a Yubico authenticator device to actually generate the TOTP code rather than storing the TOTP account secret directly in the local filesystem and computing the code directly in the app.
For Linux Desktops It would appear that all Yubikey desktop software is written in Python currently v2.
The software is therefore cross-platform though not pretty.
The desktop applications are, frankly, extremely ugly and clumsy to use.
Clearly the Yubico company is full of electronic engineers and not software developers.
A number of Yubikey applications are available in the standard Ubuntu package repository.
However the Ubuntu ones are extremely old; Yubico recommends enabling and the following information is based on the current apps from that PPA.
The graphical interfaces are fairly primitive.
The other functionality of the ykman commandline tool is not currently available in graphical form.
App yubikey-personalization-gui provides detailed info and settings for the overall key, and like ykman allows configuration of slot1 and slot2.
Most users will never need this app.
If you do, the is very useful as the inteface is extremely hard to use.
As TOTP is widely used eg login to Googlemost Yubikey owners will use this app on a daily basis.
If you are using smartcard-based login eg with MacOS then you will need pivman to set up an initial key and pin or possibly ykman will be sufficient.
In most cases, you will not need pivman after initial setup.
The U2F FIDO1 and FIDO2 algorithms do not need any dedicated admin applications; the necessary support is built in to client applications web-browsers etc.
The PGP support in Yubikey does not need a dedicated admin app; the standard OpenPGP-compatible tools are all that is needed.
Yubico also provides software for server-side support: pam plugins, various libararies, and an authentication server click the Yubico-OTP protocol.
Secrets in a Yubikey cannot be read, only written.
Nevertheless, a Yubikey can be reconfigured using the personalization application.
By default, this can be done without a password - ie anyone with access to the Yubikey can reconfigure it.
The personalization tools allow setting a separate password that is needed for reconfiguration of each obsolete protocol.
Later they changed their minds and developed later code in private.
However at the current time there are no completely open competitors except for the OpenPGP card, which is in smartcard format and does not support as many features.
The point is: if a user can give someone else their authentication credentials, then at least some users will.
Users can sadly often easily be persuaded to give out passwords.
Users can also potentially be tricked into giving out HOTP codes valid for one use only and TOTP codes valid for one use within the next 30 seconds only - better than passwords, but still not perfect.
Of course, the credentials must also be useable - ie they require client-side software support to be useable.
It is therefore a good idea for a server to prompt for yet another authentication code at critical points, eg before changing account credentials or making a financial transfer.
The user must then actively approve the operation.
This will not stop all attacks, but helps.
Alternatives to Yubikey Your Phone Google have recently added a feature to the Android mobile phone OS to allow it to.
When a PC user connects to a website using a browser and is prompted for 2FA login, the PC communicates directly with the phone via Bluetooth and retrieves the necessary one-time-only credential.
AFAICT, there is no need for the phone to be online.
Both phone and PC must of course be bluetooth-enabled.
AFAICT, this how coin slot in pisonet feature has been back-ported to earlier versions of Android, and is useable from Android 7.
Most phones simply implement the key-storage in software, presumably meaning that software on the phone which has root privileges could extract the underlying secret from which the one-time-only credentials are derived.
Uploading of new secrets would be vulnerable to malware running at root level, eg uploading keys for SSH or similar purposes where they were generated outside of the embedded hardware token.
Unfortunately it appears that only FIDO-1 is supported at the current time - a protocol that is already obsolete, and used almost exclusively to log into Google online services.
However the idea is very good IMO; if future phones come with an embedded cryptographically secure key storage module, and FIDO2-capable interfaces then this could be an excellent alternative to a separate physical security token.
The separate token will always be slightly superior, just because it does not run arbitrary software, but the convenience of a phone-based solution might make this a good solution for most users.
See also for more details.
This states that the software supports FIDO2 - not sure this is the case!
Theoretically, any phone could nuts slot 10mm t as an authentication token over NFC; the.
One of the original developers commented on slashdot; the.
There is also an yubikey change slot article on.
Hardware and software source is and docs on.
The Solo is similar to the Yubikey in many ways USB-A or USB-C with NFC coming in mid-2019; button for press-to-confirm.
I have written a. yubikey change slot yubikey change slot yubikey change slot yubikey change slot yubikey change slot yubikey change slot

PC Building & etc.

Yubikeys for Static Secrets | EngineerBetter | More than Cloud Platform specialists Yubikey change slot

Using a YubiKey as a second factor for LUKS · InfoSec Handbook – information security blog Yubikey change slot

I configured a YubiKey on Windows using the YubiKey minidriver with the.. [do_card] (0x4000): Trying to switch to friendly to read certificate.
Yubico changes the game for strong authentication, providing. Use the YubiKey Personalization Tool to configure the two slots on your ...
Using YubiKey to Qubes authentication You can use YubiKey to enhance Qubes user. This package does not support sharing the same key slot with other. Then reboot your USB VM (so changes inside the TemplateVM take effect in your ...


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Total 23 comments.